There was an interesting article published in The Times this week (The fructose timebomb: it’s sweet drinks that are making our children fat | The Times). Most of us know that fizzy drinks aren’t a healthy option. Coca Cola is my particular bugbear as it has no redeeming features – 10 teaspoons of sugar in the average can and high caffeine content to boot, but all fizzy drinks are harmful. Full of empty calories, aside from the high sugar content, they are full of artificial colours and flavourings, and many, including coca cola are high in phosphoric acid, which results in calcium being leached from the skeleton and leads to osteoporosis.
What shocked me, after reading this article, was just how much sugar there was in seemingly healthy drinks (see chart below). My favoured smoothie bought for the children contains pretty much the same amount of sugar as coca cola. I mean, I know juices aren’t great for you, and I have been banging on about it to my children for ages, and limiting their intake as a consequence. It just doesn’t make sense that we can drink a juice in a matter of seconds with impunity when, if we actually ate the equivalent fruit from which the juice was taken, it would take us some considerable time (and our hunger would be satisfied before we finished eating). It’s just too easy to mindlessly knock back juices without considering what we are actually consuming. Moreover, as we are told that juices can count as one of our “five a day”, we believe we are actively improving our and our children’s health by doing this
How much sugar is in your drink
Average serving size: 250ml
1. Fanta 12.2g sugars / 50 kcal per 100ml
2. 7Up 11g sugars / 41 kcal per 100ml
3. Waitrose squeezed smooth orange juice 10.6g sugars / 47 kcal per 100ml
4. Coca-Cola 10.6g sugars / 42 kcal per 100ml
5. Sprite 10.55g sugars / 43.5 kcal per 100ml
6. Innocent strawberry & bananas smoothie 10.52g sugars / 53.2 kcal per 100 ml
7. Sunny Delight “California style” 8.7g sugars / 38 kcal per 100ml
8. J2O apple & mango 6.2g sugars / 27 kcal per 100ml
9. Orange Tango 4.3g sugars / 19 kcal per 100ml
10. Diet Coke 0g sugars / 0.25 kcal per 100ml
Sources: Coca-Cola; innocent; Sunny Delight; Britvic Soft Drinks; Waitrose
Dr Robert Lustig, a specialist in endocrinology, has set out to expose the sugar industry, and supports the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (ARMS) who, as an anti-obesity measure, is demanding a 20% tax on high-sugar drinks. Several countries, including France, have recently imposed a duty on sugary drinks at 20p per litre.
Dr Lustig explains why fruit juices in particular are so deleterious to health. The sugar content, or fructose (simply sugar contained in fruit, vegetables and honey), is slightly higher in, for example, orange juice, than the average fizzy drink. Fructose is metabolised by the liver, the only part of the body able to do this job. So when a fruit juice or smoothy is consumed, the liver is hit by a massive dose of sugar that it has to process. Often the body simply cannot cope with the traffic and is overloaded with toxins; this is when problems such as non-alcoholic fatty liver, cirrhosis and other liver diseases can develop.
According to Dr Lustig, fructose is the main cause of metabolic syndrome, the precursor to diabetes, which has become an epidemic along with obesity in the western world. You don’t have to be obese to get metabolic syndrome; many seemingly slender people suffer from it, and it is on the rise in tandem with our increased intake of fructose (fructose consumption has increased sixfold over the past century, according to Dr Lustig).
So, what can we drink instead of fizzy drinks and juices?
- filtered water flavoured with slices of cucumber, lemon or orange is cooling and refreshing
- filtered or naturally carbonated water flavoured with ginger is cleansing and warming
- naturally carbonated water flavoured with the juice of a lime. This is very sour, but my children actually love it. An acquired taste possibly.
- citron pressé (freshly squeezed lemon juice, diluted with filtered water). Also very sour, obviously.
- fruit juice diluted with filtered or naturally carbonated water (use juice like a cordial to flavour the water).
- CherryActive. This is a cordial made from Montmorency cherries. It has numerous health benefits, including improving sleep patterns and aiding recovery after sports. It provides a much lesser hit of fructose than other cordials and juices; check out the website to find out more. I consider it a wonder product and my children love it too.
- Coconut water. I like Vita Coco Coconut Water which is stocked by most supermarkets. Choose the pure version, not mixed with tropical fruit juices. It is rich in potassium, very hydrating and an effective electrolyte drink that can be used to aid recovery after sport.
How can we limit the effects of fructose on the body? Use water (always filtered – tap water is full of chemicals harmful to the body) to quench thirst. Ensure that any sweet drinks are consumed after a meal to limit the sugar hit on the body. Keep juices as a treat, not as an everyday essential 1 of your “5 a day”. Remember to break the rules from time-to-time; the odd lemonade is not going to kill you.
Last weekend I was really looking forward to celebrating the end of austere January and welcoming in February with a bacon sandwich. Not just any old sandwich, it had to have the best bacon (I love unsmoked streaky; Duchy Originals and Denhay are both good, but try your local butcher’s own bacon if you can), and the bread had to be just right, especially since I really don’t eat bread that often. The main reason for this is that I try to largely follow a Paleolithic diet, or whole food diet. For those of you who haven’t heard of this popular food movement, the premise is that we should all aim to return to a more primitive, less complicated diet, containing ingredients that we recognise, and choosing the sort of foods our ancestors ate. Hence, a Paleo diet is is high in protein, good fats and (non-starchy) carbohydrates.
Bread is forbidden in the Paleo diet (well, bread as we know it – there are many Paleo recipes for wheat-free Ezekiel, or sprouting breads but these are not made with wheat flour, and do not resemble bread as such), as are all white, processed foods such as pasta and rice, as well as potatoes, as these were not part of the diet of our hunter-gatherer forebears.
Paleo followers believe (and there is much evidence to support this) that food processing has led to the obesity epidemic in the West. Starchy carbohydrates like bread have a high glycaemic index (GI) which means they release their intrinsic sugar quickly, causing blood sugar levels to spike. This in turn creates a rapid rise in the hormone insulin which is produced to escort sugar out of the bloodstream to where it is needed for energy (the liver and muscles) or for storage as fat if taken in excess. Eating large quantities of high GI foods can lead to an increased production of insulin, blood sugar balancing issues (think mood swings, food cravings, headaches, etc.), central weight gain and ultimately insulin malfunction (Insulin Resistance or Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes).
Paleo Diet aside, the other reason I tend to avoid bread is that I find British bread on the whole pretty unpalatable. Supermarket loaves for example – the texture is all wrong – there is no substance or structure to the bread. When I go to France and eat a baguette, I do not have any of the uncomfortable symptoms that I suffer with British supermarket bread such as bloating or abdominal discomfort. In France, bread is bought daily from the local boulangerie where it is made by artisinal bread makers who take pride in their industry. The bread has a satisfying texture and goes stale the following day. It is not pumped full of unrecognisable ingredients designed to increase yield and extend shelf life.
Here in the UK, most of us buy our bread from the the supermarket, and of these supermarket breads, most are in fact produced in the same factories in the same way. Most contain twelve or more ingredients, often including sugar or caramel. In fact, only 3 ingredients are actually needed to produce a delicious bread; flour, yeast and water. The problem with these breads is the production; instead of allowing dough to prove and rest so that it properly ferments, a process called the Chorleywood Bread Process (CBP), established in the 1960s to increase yield, is used. This process avoids lengthy fermentation and instead pumps air and water into the dough. As a consequence twice the amount of yeast is required. Chemicals are required to allow the gas to enter the mix and fat is added to give structure to the bread. If you are interested in reading more about this topic, Felicity Lawrence’s fascinating book Not On the Label: What Really Goes into the Food on Your Plate is really worth a read.
It can be a bit of a minefield deciding which is the best bread to buy, so I have included a list of the various qualities of different bread types to help you make your choice.
- Granary/Multiseed/Brown. Wholegrains are high in fibre and consequently slow to digest and release their energy. Multiseed bread is often made with a variety of flour such as wheat and rye, with the seeds baked into the loaf. The seeds are a good source of Omega-6, and give the bread a nutty flavour.
- Spelt. Spelt is an ancient type of wheat that has a lower gluten content than regular wheat, so may be more easily tolerated by people with wheat intolerance. It is also higher in protein than regular wheat. It is low in phytates (compounds than can inhibit the absorption of minerals), so if tolerable, it can be a better option than bread made with regular wheat.
- Linseed. This bread is usually made from wheat flour with added linseeds. Linseeds contain lignans, oestrogenic compounds, that are high in Omega-3. This bread should be eaten untoasted as heating will destroy the benefits of the oils.
- Black/rye. Rye does not rise like wheat when baked, so creates a denser, more fibrous bread. It also contains less gluten, so is a great choice for wheat intolerant people. The high fibre content means a longer sensation of satiety.
- Gluten-free. These are made from flours naturally free from gluten (a protein which is found in wheat, barley and rye) such as millet, corn, amaranth or oats. These breads are often higher in fibre too. The only bread option for sufferers of Coeliac’s Disease.
- Wholemeal. Wholemeal bread is made from wholemeal flour – ground wholegrain containing fibre and minerals. The percentage of wholemeal flour will vary from loaf to loaf, and the higher the percentage, the greater the feeling of satiety. Aim for 100% wholemeal to maximise energy levels. Choose stone-ground if possible for high fibre content.
- White bread in general is a less healthy option, as it is produced from milled flour (wheatbran and wheatgerm removed). It is consequently low in fibre and vitamins and minerals. It can also produce an insulin spike due to its quick-release carbohydrates. White flour is naturally yellow in colour, so is bleached before baking.
- Bagels. These are fat-free, however, due to the processed flour provide a short term energy boost.
- Pitta Bread. Like white bread, pitta bread has little nutritional value. Wholewheat pitta is a better option.
Personally, I generally choose one of two breads to feed my family, and all my children prefer them toasted. They love a good baguette for sandwiches, but I find it quite hard to buy a decent one unless I go to a specialist bread shop or to the Farmer’s Market. To find your own local producer of decent bread, try the Real Bread Campaign; you can put in your postcode and find your nearest supplier of proper bread. I can, however, buy Crosta Mollica‘s Pane Pugliese Italian toasting bread in my local supermarket, and we all love it. The children have it once or twice a week for breakfast with marmite or peanut butter, and it was my bread of choice for my celebratory end of January bacon sandwich. The bread is a beautiful golden colour, has a lovely chewy crust and a great texture when toasted. Better still, it has only four ingredients; flour, water, yeast and salt; and has a very short shelf life.
The other bread I love, unfortunately also not British, is Poilâne. It doesn’t have quite the yielding texture of the Pane Pugliese, but is chewy with a hard crust, and is delicious toasted and untoasted, and makes a great sandwich. Like the Italian bread, it is only has four ingredients (the same ones) and maybe due to its longer fermentation, it has no adverse effect on my digestion.
For my perfect sandwich, toast two slices of your choice of bread, spread liberally with good quality salted British butter, preferably organic (try Yeo Valley). Top with three or four rashers of crisp, grilled bacon. Add Brown Sauce (for me, it has to be HP Sauce.), if it’s a breakfast sandwich.
If it’s a Sunday night supper, I will top with sliced avocado, or, if I am feeling virtuous, or simply can’t get hold of my favourite bread (the pesky kids have eaten it all, usually!), then I will make a Nom Nom Paleo Bacon & Guacamole Sammies (or bacon and avocado sandwich, in English). That is simply bacon grilled until crisp, used as the bread around a filling of mashed avocado. Delicious, Paleo heaven.
I love (nearly) all foods, the more exotic the better. One of my favourite pastimes when travelling to a new country is to try the local delicacies. The husband (Brent) and I often shop abroad for local specialities in markets and shops so that we can try to recreate our favourite holiday dishes at home, but somehow they never tastes as good as in situ. There is something about eating food in a location close to where the produce has been sourced that makes it taste especially good; whether it’s the freshness of the ingredients, or flavours that somehow seem to fit the environment, I’m not really sure. Whatever the reason, it makes sense to choose local and seasonal as much as possible. Apart from the fresher and consequently more nutrient-dense ingredients, reducing the distance your food has travelled reduces carbon emissions. Not only that, but by choosing British, we can all support our native food producers and help boost the economy. Of course, it is not always possible to just eat British produce – many key ingredients in our multi-cultural British diet are shipped from abroad – however, just being more aware of what is in season, and locally produced, is a step in the right direction. Basing meals around food that we can only enjoy at certain times of the year when it is in season will make us value this produce more than if we buy its inferior counterpart from the supermarket as and when we feel like it throughout the year.
Kale (or as it is known in the States, collards) is a member of the Brassica family and has been a staple European crop and peasant food for centuries. It is robust and plentiful, currently in season and more than likely grown in a locality close to you. Lately, however, kale seems to be having its once humble profile raised to the status of a superfood. It is nutrient-dense, and high in vitamins A, C and E and K, as well as being rich in iron, calcium and a number of other key minerals. It is also high in sulforophane and indole-3-carbinol, chemical compounds which can help protect the the body against cancer and help reduce the risk of heart disease. Kale’s high sulphur content also helps support the detoxification processes of the body, so kale really does make the perfect detox food.
According to recent magazines, kale is the hippest addition to smoothies and juices. It also features in the latest celebrity diet book, Honestly Healthy as a health food with a high alkaline rating. Eating foods with high alkaline content has been found to help increase energy and alleviate common aches and pains which can be caused by diets high in acid-forming foods, such as meat, dairy, alcohol and caffeine. Juicing is an easy and (relatively) quick way to add alkaline foods to the body, can help boost flagging energy levels, and helps to cleanse the body. If you have a juicer, check which sort you have. If it is a centrifugal juicer, you may find it struggles to cope with the fibrous stalks of kale, so removing the stalks before juicing will be helpful. Personally, I have a macerating juicer (a Matstone I Love My Matstone Juicer!. – more about this and juicing in a post very soon), which can deal with the woody kale stalks very well.
I use curly kale in green juices (purely because I am not so keen on its texture, but love the flavour). My daily green juice contains all or some of the following, and I will add whatever green vegetables I have knocking around in the fridge that are looking tired. Today, for example, I used some tenderstem broccoli that was past its prime. Please also note that the recipe below should be sufficient for two juices. The addition of the ginger and lemon will help to preserve the vitamins and minerals, so you can neck one glass immediately after juicing, and and save the second glass for the following day without losing too many of its nutrients.
Green Juice (serves 2):
- 1 bunch curly Kale
- 1 handful mint, parsley, basil (or all three)
- 1/2 cucumber
- handful lettuce leaves
- 3 celery sticks
- 1 apple or pear (to sweeten)
- 1 peeled lemon
- thumb sized piece of ginger root
Cavol0 Nero, or Black Cabbage, a leafy brassica, is my favourite type of kale. Popular in Italy for many years, it is now grown in England. Like curly kale, it is readily available, and to my tastes, more delicious and versatile than its more common cousin. When selecting your cavolo nero, choose one with firm leaves and a vibrant green colour. Personally, I love its heavily veined, earthy texture, the ridge of which become coated with and retain the oil and flavourings used to season it when it is sautéd.
To prepare cavolo nero, (and indeed any kale), rinse well in cold water, and remove the stalk which is too fibrous too eat (you can retain and use in your green juice, though, if you have a macerating juicer).
The following recipe makes a great, healthy week-night dinner. It is relatively quick and easy to cook, and full of nutrients. The halibut is found in UK waters, and is in season at the moment. It is a lean, firm flaky textured flatfish, often served in steaks, and has few bones. Grilling it quickly will ensure the delicate flesh does not dry out. The confit of winter vegetables makes a lovely accompaniment, adding substance to the subtle flavour of the fish.
Grilled Halibut steaks with a confit of winter vegetables and cavolo nero (serves 2):
- 2 halibut steaks
- 200g Cavolo Nero, washed and deveined, leaves left whole
- 1 medium sized leek, trimmed and chopped into rounds of about 1cm
- 1 bulb of fennel, trimmed and sliced
- 4 pearl onions, peeled, left whole
- 50g British chestnut mushrooms, trimmed, left whole
- 1 lemon, cut into wedges, to garnish
- Sweat the leek and fennel in a knob of butter until softened.
- In another pan, brown chestnut mushrooms and onions in a knob of butter.
- Add mushrooms to leek and fennel confit.
- Season halibut steaks on both sides.
- Grill halibut steaks under high heat (approx. 3 minutes each side)
- Blanche the cavolo nero in boiling salted water for 1 minute and then drain. Set aside
- Heat tsp oil in pan and fry cavolo nero on high heat until glossy.
- Season cavolo nero with salt and pepper and juice of half a lemon.
- Serve halibut steak on top of the cavolo nero and confited vegetables.
- Drizzle with a little extra virgin oil.
Another great use for curly kale, but one that I have not as yet tried making myself, are kale chips. I am currently researching which Food dehydrator to buy, and one of the first things I am going to try to make are these. In the meantime, if like me you love salty snacks with your apéritif, try these Raw Kale Chips:Wasabi Wheatgrass by inSpiral. They are pieces of curly kale slow baked (or dehydrated) with seasoning into a sort of vegetable crisp – absolutely delicious, as well as virtuous; I hope my homemade attempts will be almost as good and will report back shortly.